First After Effects Walk Cycle

This is the result of following the tutorials cited below which taught you how to use the puppet tool to rig in after effects. Exactly what I learnt from those tutorials is detailed in the previous post “Character Rigging”.

Harvard Citation:

MtMograph. (2013). Summit 4.1 – Character Rigging – After Effects.Available: Last accessed 29th Oct 2016.

MtMograph. (2013). Summit 4.2 – Character Rigging – After Effects.Available: Last accessed 29th Oct 2016.

Writing The Short Film


Types of storytelling: joke, anecdote, idiom – the need for storytelling

The Satire “Satire is a particular form of comedy. It is more savage than other forms, because the object of the satire, in the mind of the writer, deserves to be ridiculed.”
(p116, Dramatic Strategies)

The Fable “devised to convey some useful moral lesson”
(p117, Dramatic Strategies)

The Morality Tale “The key difference between the morality tale and the fable is the use of human beings rather than animals in the story.”
(p118, Dramatic Strategies)

The Journey “someone is always setting out from home.”
(p118, Dramatic Strategies)

Conflict and Polarities
(p120, Dramatic Strategies)

Character and dramatic core (where should emphasis be placed?) – component of a good story is self-explanation
(p121, Dramatic Strategies)

Seek creative solutions to problems “avoiding mechanical solutions means keeping your awareness of, excitement about, and commitment to the original idea in the forefront.”

(p124, Dramatic Strategies)

“should be a student of human behaviour”
(p134, Characterisation Strategies)

The Comic Character
(p137, Characterisation Strategies)

The Tragic Character
(p138, Characterisation Strategies)

Writing The Short Film


“we will define a story as any narration of events or incidents that relates how something happened to someone” [someone = main character]
(p9, Storytelling in General)

“Aspects of the Novel, novelist, E.M. Forster gives a succinct example of this process: ‘The King died and then the Queen died’ is a statement. ‘The King died and then the Queen died’ is a plot. In general, the short screen play… works best when its plot is uncomplicated, when we are given a glimpse of someone at a particular- very likely pivotal- moment… when an incident or a simple choice sets in motion a chain of events.”
(p9, Storytelling in General)

“Paul Zweig refers when he writes, ‘To enter a story one must give up being oneself for a while’.”
(p10, Storytelling in General)

“Aristotle’s play manual The Poetics says, ‘Objects which in themselves we view with pain, we delight to contemplate when reproduced with minute fidelity… The cause of this again is that to learn gives the liveliest pleasure, not just to philosophers but to men in general.” [Learning through fiction]
(p10, Storytelling in General)

Journey Structure – a journey is undertaken e.g. a physical or emotional one
(p10, Storytelling in General)

“Screenwriters need to be familiar with the classic films of the genre in which to they choose to work.”
(p11, Storytelling in General)

Ritual Occasion – an event occurs triggering this e.g. ‘coming-of-age’ or ‘stranger-bringing-change’ trope. Adventure isn’t sought but merely occurs.
(p13, Storytelling in General)

“aural images can expand the frame in terms of offscreen space and extend the meaning of what is being shown”
(p29, Using Sound To Tell The Story)

“the writer must discover or invent a language that is both personal and effective, and that, above all, stimulates the mind’s eye” “a screenplay cannot be judged by form and technique, or by the abandonment of either” [in other words, the story is the most important not how it is presented]
(p32, Using Sound To Tell The Story)

Sound use: location description, layers of sound e.g. birds, cars, breathing etc.
(p32, Using Sound To Tell The Story)

“In a short film, we are usually introduced to the protagonist before the catalytic event occurs, so that we will have a chance to identify with him or her” [usually brief]
(p44, Discovering and Exploring Main Character)

Character: “you are what you ordinarily do – that is, until some occurance leads you to do something you would not ordinarily do” [that makes for a dramatic situation]
(p37, Discovering and Exploring Main Character)

“if a story is to work as drama, its contest needs to be organised in terms of dramatic structure”

Protagonist – main character, Antagonist – main opposition, main conflict – PvsA, dramatic action – heart of play, psyche – motivating force, catalyst – inciting moment, climax – major turning point, recognition – precedes
(p47, Telling the Dramatic Story)

“a change from ignorance to knowledge”
(p48, Telling the Dramatic Story)

“In screenwriting general ideas are of little or no use when you sit down at a desk to write” 2 major stumbling blocks a 1) what (specifically) do I write about? 2) How specific do I get?
(p49, Telling the Dramatic Story)

8 preliminary questions: 1) Who’s the protagonist? 2) What is the situation at the beginning of the script? 3) Who or what is the antagonist? 4) What event/occasion serves as a catalyst 5) What is the protagonist’s dramatic action 6) What is the antagonist’s dramatic action 7)How is the protagonists actions resolved 8) Do you have an idea about the ending structure
(p51, Telling the Dramatic Story)

5 Steps:

  • Protagonist before action
  • Catalyst
  • Dramatic action and mounting intensity
  • Resolve action: success/failure (success can turn out to be failure)
  • Final situation often a single shot
    (p51, Telling the Dramatic Story)



Got some books from the library today. Hopefully, I can power through these and then get started on Film Festivals.

Harvard Citations:

Barnwell, J (2008). The Fundamentals Of Film-Making. Lausanne: AVA. p5-208.

Cooper, P (2005). Writing The Short Film. 3rd ed. London: Focal Press. p9-205.

Elsey, E (2002). In Short: A Guide to Short Film-making in the Digital Age. London: BFI Publishing. p141-156.

Johnson, C (2005). Crafting Short Screenplays That Connect. 2nd ed. Burlington: Focal Press. p5-278.

Marx, C (2007). Writing for Animation, Comics, and Games. London: Focal Press. p40-70.

Proferes, N.T. (2005). Film directing fundamentals: see your film before shooting. 2nd ed. Oxford: Focal Press. p3-160.